Third, the conference developed a clear roadmap to peace for the main Libyan powers, and tackled the issue of who has the right to represent the Libyan people. It addressed both Fayez Serraj and Marshal Haftar as the internationally-recognised Libyan forces. Although they did not sit together at the negotiating table during the conference, they were present and negotiated separately on the final statement and the obligations it approves.Finally, the conference affirms the role of the United Nations in resolving the crisis and stopping any individual initiatives by any country. This includes the Italian proposal to send European forces to monitor the ceasefire. The final statement of the conference is to be presented to the UN Security Council for approval and a binding resolution. This includes a monitoring mechanism for following up on the implementation of the promised commitments, which will start in early February. Also, it launches a direct dialogue between the Libyan parties in three basic respects. It addressed the military aspect through the formation of a committee (5 + 5) comprising of five representatives for each Libyan party, Al-Sarraj’s GNA and Haftar’s LNA. It will discuss the detailed issues related to the ceasefire. The economic aspect will deal with the Libyan Central Bank, the distribution of oil revenues, and the management of oil fields. The third aspect is the political one, the progress of which remains subject to the overall progress of the deal.
The Libyan crisis is one of the most complicated. No single conference can settle all the issues involved. TheBerlin conference did not achieve all the expected results, but it prevented the crisis from worsening. It may also be a step ahead in the long road to a settlement of the Libyan crisis.